Airmodus > Publications

Instrument characterization

Vanhanen, J., Mikkilä, J., Lehtipalo, K., Sipilä, M., Manninen, H. E., Siivola, E., Petäjä, T. and Kulmala, M.: Particle Size Magnifier for Nano-CN Detection, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 45: 4, 533-542, 2011


Data analysis methods

Lehtipalo, K., Leppä, J., Kontkanen, J., Kangasluoma, J., Franchin, A., Wimmer, D., Schobesberger, S., Junninen, H., Petäjä, T., Sipilä, M., Mikkilä, J., Vanhanen, J., Worsnop, D. R. & Kulmala, M. 2014: Methods for determining particle size distribution and growth rates between 1 and 3 nm using the Particle Size Magnifier. Boreal Env. Res. 19 (suppl. B).


Peer-reviewed articles reporting measurements with Airmodus nCNC (PSM)

Jokinen, T., Kontkanen, J., Lehtipalo, K., Manninen, H. E., Aalto, J., Porcar-Castell, A., Garmash, O., Nieminen, T., Ehn, M., Kangasluoma, J., Junninen, H., Levula, J., Duplissy, J., Ahonen, L. R., Rantala, P., Heikkinen, L., Yan, C., Sipilä, M., Worsnop, D. R., Bäck, J., Petäjä, T., Kerminen, V.-M., Kulmala, M. Solar eclipse demonstrating the importance of photochemistry in new particle formation. Sci. Rep. 7 45707,2017. doi:10.1038/srep45707

Mendes, L., Kangas, A., Kukko, K., Mølgaard, B., Säämänen, A., Kanerva, T., Ituarte, I. F., Huhtiniemi, M., Stockmann-Juvala, H. Partanen, J., Hämeri, K., Eleftheriadis, K., Viitanen, A.-K. Characterization of Emissions from a Desktop 3D Printer. J. Ind. Ecol., available online March 20, 2017. DOI: 10.1111/jiec.12569

Dai, L., Wang, H., Zhou, L., An, J., Tang, L., Lu, C., Yan, W., Liu, R., Kong, S., Chen, M., Lee, S., Yu, H. Regional and local new particle formation events observed in the Yangtze River Delta region, China. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 122, 2017, doi:10.1002/2016JD026030.

Yu, H., Dai, L., Zhao, Y., Kanawade, V. P., Tripathi, S. N., Ge, X., Chen, M., Lee, S. Laboratory observations of temperature and humidity dependencies of nucleation and growth rates of sub-3 nm particles. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., vol. 122, issue 3, pp. 1919-1929, 2017.

Ahonen, L. R., Kangasluoma, J., Lammi, J., Lehtipalo, K., Hämeri, K., Petäjä, T., Kulmala, M. First measurements of the number size distribution of 1 – 2 nm aerosol particles released from manufacturing process in a cleanroom environment. Aerosol Sci. Technol., available online February 14, 2017,

Kontkanen, J., Lehtipalo, K., Ahonen, L., Kangasluoma, J., Manninen, H.E., Hakala, J., Rose, C., Sellegri, K., Xiao, S., Wang, L., Qi, X., Nie, W., Ding, A., Yu, H., Lee, S., Kerminen, V.-M., Petäjä, T., Kulmala, M. Measurements of sub-3 nm particles using a particle size magnifier in different environments: from clean mountain top to polluted megacities. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, pp. 2163-2187, 2017

Giechaskiel, B., Vanhanen, J., Väkevä, M., Martini, G. Investigation of vehicle exhaust sub-23 nm particle emissions. Aerosol Sci. Technol., available online January 25, 2017,

Arquero, K. D., Gerber, R. B., Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. The Role of Oxalic Acid in New Particle Formation from Methanesulfonic Acid, Methylamine, and Water. Environ. Sci. Technol., available online January 24, 2017, DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b05056.

Lehtoranta, K., Murtonen, T., Vesala, H., Koponen, P., Alanen, J., Simonen, P., Rönkkö, T., Timonen, H., Saarikoski, S., Maunula, T., Kallinen, K., Korhonen, S. Natural Gas Engine Emission Reduction by Catalysts. Emiss. Control Sci. Technol., 2016.

Wang, Y., Kangasluoma, J., Attoui, M., Fang, J., Junninen, H., Kulmala, M., Petäjä, T., Biswas, P. The high charge fraction of flame-generated particles in the size range below 3 nm measured by enhanced particle detectors. Combustion and Flame, vol 176, pp. 72-80, 2017. Available online 11 November 2016.

Lee, S.-H., Uin, J., Guenther, A. B., de Gouw, J. A., Yu, F., Nadykto, A. B., Herb, J., Ng, N. L., Koss, A., Brune, W. H., Baumann, K., Kanawade, V. P., Keutsch, F. N., Nenes, A., Olsen, K., Goldstein, A., Ouyang, Q. Isoprene suppression of new particle formation: Potential mechanisms and implications. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol 121, 14,621-14,625, 2016.

Nosko, O., Vanhanen, J., Olofsson, U. Emission of 1.3-10 nm airborne particles from brake materials. Aerosol Sci. Technol. vol 51, issue 1, pp. 91-96, 2017. Published online 02 Nov 2016.

Kontkanen, J., Lehtipalo, K., Ahonen, L., Kangasluoma, J., Manninen, H., Hakala, J., Rose, C., Sellegri ,K., Xiao S., Wang, L., Qi, X., Nie, W., Ding, A., Yu, H., Lee, S., Kerminen, V.-M., Petäjä, T., Kulmala, M. A global view on atmospheric concentrations of sub-3 nm particles measured with the Particle Size Magnifier. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2016-847, in review, 2016.

Sellegri, K., Pey, J., Rose, C., Culot, A., DeWitt, H. L., Mas, S., Schwier, A. N., Temime-Roussel, B., Charriere, B., Saiz-Lopez, A., Mahajan, A. S., Parin, D., Kukui, A., Sempere, R., D’Anna, B., Marchand, N. Evidence of atmospheric nanoparticle formation from emissions of marine microorganisms. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 6596-6603, 2016, doi:10.1002/2016GL069389.

Olin, M., Anttila, T., Dal Maso, M. Using a combined power law and log-normal distribution model to simulate particle formation and growth in a mobile aerosol chamber, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7067-7090, doi:10.5194/acp-16-7067-2016, 2016.

Bianchi, F., Tröstl, J., Junninen, H., Frege, C., Henne, S., Hoyle, C.R., Molteni, U., Herrmann, E., Adamov, A., Bukowiecki, N., Chen, X., Duplissy, J., Gysel, M., Hutterli, M., Kangasluoma, J., Kontkanen, J, Kürten, A., Manninen, H. E., Münch, S., Peräkylä, O., Petäjä, T., Rondo, L., Williamson, C., Weingartner, E., Curtius, J., Worsnop, D. R., Kulmala, M., Dommen, J., Baltensperger, U. New particle formation in the free troposphere: A question of chemistry and timing. Science vol. 352, issue 6289, pp. 1109-1112, 2016

Kirkby et al. Ion-induced nucleation of pure biogenic particles. Nature, vol 533, pp. 521-526, 2016

Tröstl et al. The role of low-volatility organic compounds in initial particle growth in the atmosphere. Nature vol. 533, pp. 527-531, 2016

Lehtipalo et al. The effect of acid-base clustering and ions on the growth of atmospheric nano- particles. Nature Communications 7, 11594, 2016

Kangasluoma, J., Samodurov, A., Attoui, M., Franchin, A., Junninen, H., Korhonen, F., Kurtén, T., Vehkamäki, H., Sipilä, M., Lehtipalo, K., Worsnop, D. R., Petäjä, T., Kulmala, M. Heterogenous nucleation onto ions and neutralized ions: insights into sign-preference. J. Phys. Chem. C., 120 (13), 7444-7450, 2016.

Yu, H., Zhou, L., Dai, L., Shen, W., Zheng, J., Ma, Y., Chen, M. Nucleation and growth of sub-3 nm particles in the polluted urban atmosphere of a megacity in China. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2641-2657, 2016.

Dal Maso, M., Liao, L., Wildt, J., Kiendler-Scharr, A., Kleist, E., Tillmann, R., Sipilä, M., Hakala, J., Lehtipalo, K., Ehn, M., Kerminen, V.-M., Kulmala, M., Worsnop, D., Mentel, T. A chamber study of the influence of boreal BVOC emissions and sulfuric acid on nanoparticle formation rates at ambient concentrations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1955-1970, doi:10.5194/acp-16-1955-2016, 2016.

Kontkanen, J., Järvinen, E., Manninen, H.E., Lehtipalo, K., Kangasluoma, J., Decesari, S., Gobbi, G.P., Laaksonen, A., Petäjä, T., Kulmala, M. High concentrations of sub-3nm clusters and frequent new particle formation observed in the Po Valley, Italy, during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1919-1935, 2016

Sarnela, N., Jokinen, T., Nieminen, T., Lehtipalo, K., Junninen, H., Kangasluoma, J., Hakala, J., Taipale, R., Schobesberger, S., Sipilä, M., Larnimaa, K., Westerholm, H., Heijari, J., Kerminen, V.-M., Petäjä, T., Kulmala, M. Sulphuric acid and aerosol particle production in the vicinity of an oil refinery. Atmos. Env., vol 119, 156-166, 2015.

Alanen, J., Saukko, E., Lehtoranta, K., Murtonen, T., Timonen, H., Hillamo, R., Karjalainen, P., Kuuluvainen, H., Harra, J., Keskinen, J., Rönkkö, T. The formation and physical properties of the particle emissions from a natural gas engine. Fuel, vol 162, 155-161, 2015.

Kangasluoma, J., A. Franchin, J. Duplissy, L. Ahonen, F. Korhonen, M. Attoui, J. Mikkilä, K. Lehtipalo, J. Vanhanen, M. Kulmala, and T. Petäjä. Operation of the Airmodus A11 nanoCondensation Nucleus Counter at various inlet pressures, various operation temperatures and design of a new inlet system. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2977-2988, 2016 (Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 8, 8483–8508, 2015)

Kangasluoma, J., Attoui, M., Junninen, H., Lehtipalo, K., Samodurov, A., Korhonen, F., Sarnela, N., Schmidt-Ott, A., Worsnop, D., Kulmala, M., Petäjä, T. Sizing of neutral sub 3 nm tungsten oxide clusters using Airmodus Particle Size Magnifier. Journal of Aerosol Science, vol 87, 53-62, 2015.

Rose, C., Sellegri, K., Asmi, E., Hervo, M., Freney, E., Colomb, A., Junninen, H., Duplissy, J., Sipilä, M., Kontkanen, J., Lehtipalo, K., Kulmala, M. Major contribution of neutral clusters to new particle formation at the interface between the boundary layer and the free troposphere. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3413-3428, 2015.

Xiao, S. et al Strong atmospheric new particle formation in winter in urban Shanghai, China. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1769-1781, 2015. doi:10.5194/acp-15-1769-2015

Yu, H., Ortega, J., Smith, J. N., Guenther, A. B., Kanawade, V. P., You, Y., Liu, Y., Hosman, K., Karl, T., Seco, R., Geron, C., Pallardy, S. G., Gu, L., Mikkilä, J., Lee, S.-H. New particle formation and growth in an isoprene-dominated ozark forest: from sub-5 nm to ccn-active sizes. Aerosol Sci. Technol. Vol. 48, Issue 12, pp. 1285-1298, 2014.

Neitola, K., Brus, D., Makkonen, U., Sipilä, M., Lihavainen, H., Kulmala, M. Effect of addition of four base compounds on sulphuric-acid–water new-particle formation: a laboratory study. Boreal Env. Res. 19 (suppl. B): 257–274, 2014.

Ehn, M. et al. A large source of low-volatility secondary organic aerosol. Nature 506, 476-479, 2014.

Yu, H. , Gannet Hallar , A., You , Y., Sedlacek , A., Springston , S., Kanawade , V.P., Lee , Y-N, Wang , J., Kuang , C., McGraw , R.L., McCubbin , I., Mikkila , J., and Lee, S-H: Sub-3 nm particles observed at the coastal and continental sites in the United States, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, doi:10.1002/ 2013JD020841, 2014.

Molgaard, B., Koivisto, A. J., Hussein, T. and Hämeri, K.: A new clean air delivery rate test applied to five portable indoor air cleaners. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 48, 409-417, 2014.

Kangasluoma, J., Kuang, C., Wimmer, D., Rissanen, M. P., Lehtipalo, K., Ehn, M., Worsnop, D. R., Wang, J., Kulmala, M., and Petäjä, T.: Sub-3 nm particle size and composition dependent response of a nano-CPC battery, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 689-700, 2014 (Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 6, 8855-8887, doi:10.5194/amtd-6-8855-2013, 2013.)

Kontkanen, J., Lehtinen, K. E. J., Nieminen, T., Manninen, H. E., Lehtipalo, K., Kerminen, V.-M., and Kulmala, M.: Estimating the contribution of ion–ion recombination to sub-2 nm cluster concentrations from atmospheric measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11391-11401, doi:10.5194/acp-13-11391-2013, 2013.

Schobesberger, S. et al.: Molecular understanding of atmospheric particle formation from sulfuric acid and large oxidized organic molecules. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 110, 17223-17228, 2013.

Almeida, J. et al.: Molecular understanding of sulphuric acid-amine particle nucleation in the atmosphere. Nature. 502, 359-363, 2013.

Wimmer, D., Lehtipalo, K., Franchin, A., Kangasluoma, J., Kreissl, F., Kürten, A., Kupc, A., Metzger, A., Mikkilä, J., Petäjä, T., Riccobono, F., Vanhanen, J., Kulmala, M., and Curtius, J.: Performance of diethylene glycol-based particle counters in the sub-3 nm size range, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1793-1804, doi:10.5194/amt-6-1793-2013, 2013.

Kangasluoma, J., Junninen, H., Lehtipalo, K. Mikkilä, J., Vanhanen, J., Attoui, M., Sipilä, M., Worsnop, D., Kulmala, M. and Petäjä, T.: Remarks on ion generation for CPC detection efficiency studies in sub 3 nm size range. Aerosol Sci. Technol., 5, 556- 563, 2013.

Kulmala, M., Kontkanen, J., Junninen, H., Lehtipalo, K., Manninen, H.E., Nieminen, T., Petäjä, T., Sipilä, M., Schobesberger, S., Rantala, P., Franchin, A., Jokinen, T., Järvinen, E., Äijälä, M., Kangasluoma, J., Hakala, J., Aalto, P.P, Paasonen, P., Mikkilä, J., Vanhanen, J., Aalto, J., Hakola, H., Makkonen, U., Ruuskanen, T., Mauldin, R.L., Duplissy, J., Vehkamäki, H., Bäck, J., Kortelainen, A., Riipinen, I., Kúrten, T., Johnston, M.V. Smith, J.N., Ehn, M., Mentel, T.F., Lehtinen, K.E.J., Laaksonen, A., Keminen, V.-M., and Worsnop, D.: Direct observations of atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Science, 339, 943-946, 2013.

Kulmala, M., Petäjä, T., Nieminen, T., Sipilä, M., Manninen, H.E., Lehtipalo, K., Dal Maso, M., Aalto, P.P, Junninen, H., Paasonen, P., Riipinen, I., Lehtinen, K.E.J., Laaksonen, A. and Kerminen, V.-M.: Measurement of the nucleation of atmospheric aerosol particles. Nature Protocols 7, 1651-1667, 2012.

Riccobono, F., Rondo, L., Sipilä, M., Barmet, P., Curtius, J., Dommen, J., Ehn, M., Ehrhart, S., Kulmala, M., Kürten, A., Mikkilä, J., Petäjä, T., Weingartner, E., and Baltensperger, U.: Contribution of sulfuric acid and oxidized organic compounds to particle formation and growth, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 12, 11351-11389, doi:10.5194/acpd-12-11351-2012, 2012.

Yu, H., McGraw, R and Lee, S.-H.: Effects of amines on formation of sub-3 nm particles and their subsequent growth. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L02807, 2012.

Kirkby, J. et al.: The role of sulphuric acid, ammonia and galactic cosmic rays in atmospheric aerosol nucleation, Nature, 476, 429-433, 2011.

Williams, J. et al.: The summertime Boreal forest field measurement intensive (HUMPPA-COPEC-2010): an overview of meteorological and chemical influences, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 10599-10618, 2011.c

Benson, D. R., Yu, J. H., Markovich, A., and Lee, S.-H.: Ternary homogeneous nucleation of H2SO4, NH3, and H2O under conditions relevant to the lower troposphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4755-4766, doi:10.5194/acp-11-4755-2011, 2011.

Brus, D., Neitola, K., Hyvärinen, A.-P., Petäjä, T., Vanhanen, J., Sipilä, M., Paasonen, P., Kulmala, M., and Lihavainen, H.: Homogenous nucleation of sulfuric acid and water at close to atmospherically relevant conditions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 5277-5287, doi:10.5194/acp-11-5277-2011, 2011.

Berndt, T., Stratmann, F., Sipilä, M., Vanhanen, J., Petäjä, T., Mikkilä, J., Grüner, A., Spindler, G., Mauldin III, R.L., Curtius, J., Kulmala, M., and Heintzenberg, J.: Laboratory study on new particle formation from the reaction OH + SO2: influence of experimental conditions, H2O vapour, NH3 and the amine tert-butylamine on the overall process, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7101-7116, 2010.

Sipilä, M., Berndt, T., Petäjä, T., Brus, D., Vanhanen, J., Stratmann, F., Patokoski, J., Mauldin III, R. L., Hyvärinen, A.-P., Lihavainen, H., and Kulmala, M.: The role of sulfuric acid in atmospheric nucleation. Science, 327, 1243-1246, 2010.

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